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  • Designing For Difficulty: Readability In ARPGs

    - Alex Kubodera
  • We released Death's Gambit in August of 2018. It's a notoriously difficult game and we liberally classified it as a Souls-like, for better or for worse, before the media went rabid with the term. Most people correlate Souls games with difficulty, so to Gamasutra, we were uniquely suited to talk about how we designed a game that expected you to die. I'll link to the original article here. 4 years later with an Expansion and DLC under our belt, I thought it would be a good time to revisit the first question we were asked. How do you design difficulty to be challenging and rewarding, rather than frustrating?

    (For an audio version you can listen to this article on Medium)

    Difficulty stems from a myriad of variables depending on the genre. In the context of action RPGs, difficulty is how likely you are to die. As a designer on Death's Gambit, I'll be using my experience to focus on one topic: readability. Readability is what makes a fight feel fair and how you subvert player frustrations. Thank you for coming to my GDC talk.


    Readability can be broken down into telegraphing (what happens before) and expectations (what happens after), and arguably has the largest impact on frustration (assuming controls and hitboxes are tight and well tuned). If a player can't tell something is going to kill them and it does... queue the rage compilations.

    Readability is about giving players an opportunity to recognize patterns and their countermeasures. If movesets are all the available actions of a boss, patterns are their repeated behaviours. Large gestures, color coded attacks, voice and sound cues, are all forms of telegraphing that can signal the start or stages of a pattern. Take Morgott's iconic line from Elden Ring - "Well, thou art of passing skill." It signifies a phase change and his ensuing pattern is always the same. As he soars through the air with a holy hammer twice your size, you're probably thinking ‘I should run away,' because it's the most obvious and safest countermeasure.

    It takes mental energy for players to break down patterns until their solutions start feeling like "muscle memory". This act of "chunking" as it's known in cognitive psychology isn't just about reaction time. It's about off-loading learned patterns so your brain can expend energy parsing new ones. The more complex the pattern, the harder it is for players to chunk, but the more rewarding it will feel to master.

    The ultimate balancing act of designing difficulty is giving players enough time and information to chunk patterns before they get bored or give up. How you tune this depends on your target audience. Most players get bored if they are deciphering patterns faster than the game introduces new ones. And most players give up when they feel they've exhausted all their options to try and counter a pattern without success. This is where expectations in readability becomes paramount.

    Expectations are about establishing a visual language that matches the expected outcome and remains consistent. Take Morgott's leaping hammer attack. You expect it to crush you, so you opt to create distance. What you learn from the Morgott fight will carry over as a viable countermeasure every time you see an enemy leap into the air. Visual consistency is incredibly important and can be as simple as ‘doors with a red light cannot be opened' or as complex as ‘hammer attacks when glowing red cannot be blocked'. You can have doors and hammers of all shapes and sizes, but if they glow red, the expected outcome should always be the same.

    It's also important that the relative damage numbers match the perceived danger. If the player dies from stubbing their toe, expect to receive some strongly worded DMs. If the player dies from a meteor that craters the land, still frustrating, but at least it was epic. A notable caveat here is that if players perceive an incoming attack as dangerous and it does less damage than they expect, it's a brow wiping "PHEW" moment. But you're also making your boss less threatening. A few games including Elden Ring have a feature where there's a chance players survive a killing blow with 1 hp. It's a great way to subvert expectations in the player's favor and really get the adrenaline pumping without undermining your boss.

    Sekiro introduced the 危(danger) symbol to specify that perilous attacks required specific counters. The symbol and sound cue warned players to pay attention to the readable elements of an enemy. A thrusting pose meant you were to mikiri counter. Open hands meant you were to side-step their grab. Reeling their weapon back meant you were to jump over their sweep. The visuals were consistent with the expected behaviour. An open hand never meant they were suddenly going to switch into a sweep attack. Not every game needs the 危 symbol, but FromSoft probably realized there was only so much players could parse in their blade frenzy of a game before every enemy attack started looking the same. Even with the warning it's still challenging to counter in the heat of the moment. The lesson here is not to make patterns too subtle or more complicated than your players are capable of chunking. And if you do, give them a crutch (危).


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